What is it?Why Use It?What is Available?Which Should I Use?Where Do I Go For Help?
This is the "EndNote" page of the "Citation Management" guide.
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Citation Management  

Last Updated: Jun 30, 2015 URL: http://libguides.reed.edu/citation Print Guide RSS Updates

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    What Does EndNote Do?

    EndNote allows you to search online bibliographic databases, import references, save and organize your own list of references, and makes it easy for you to create a bibliography when the time comes.

    If you are using Word to write your paper, thesis, or any work needing a bibliography you can make your life a lot easier by using EndNote to Cite While You Write with Word. When you properly use EndNote with Word managing your citation styles and creating your final bibliography become fairly easy.

    Endnote may also be used with LaTeX.


      Get EndNote Software

      Reed College has a site license for EndNote citation management software. You'll find a copy of EndNote on library and ETC computers. You're also permitted to download a copy of EndNote on a Reed or personal computer. Download EndNote

      For more information, see CUS's EndNote Installation.

      If you have trouble downloading of installing EndNote, please contact the CUS Help Desk.

      If you don't want to add more software to your computer or prefer to work "In The Cloud", try the online version of Endnote.

        Creating a Library

        In EndNote, you'll first need to create a "library," or a folder to hold your citations.

        Pro Tips:

        • Name your library something you will remember
        • Be sure to put it in a location that you back up frequently.
        • Use the  "Save as Package" option. This option merges the two files that EndNote normally creates (a .enl file and a .data folder) into one file. 

          Importing Citations

          Conducting an online search via EndNote may not be the best way for you to populate your EndNote library. Many of our sources, such as JSTOR, don't have connection files, while others, such as Web of Science, have sophisticated search capabilities that can't be ustilized via the EndNote search. In these situations, you can add citations to EndNote using the import option.

          • Search as you ordinarily would in the database of your choice.
          • Mark or save citations you're interested in. Most databases have some way of doing this, so you'll need to look for the option.

          At this point, which browser you are using deteermines what you do next:

            • FireFox/Direct Export: 
              • Export the citation.  Use the Direct Export to EndNote option.  Notice and remember where the citations were saved on your computer and what the file is called. You will be asked which program should be used to open the file (EndNote), and then which library the files should be imported to, if no library is open. Then your references should all be imported into EndNote.
              • If there is no Direct Export option or the option does not work correctly, use the instructions for Safari Users below.

            • Safari users: 
              • Export the citation.  Use the RIS file format or Export to EndNote if there is either option.  Notice and remember where the citations were saved on your computer and what the file is called.
              • From the EndNote menu, choose File, then Import.  Highlight the citation file you imported earlier.  Then for the Import Options pull-down menu, choose the filter used for your database.  Click on the Import button.

          If you are having trouble deciding which filter to use when importing citations into EndNote? If you aren't using FireFox, EndNote will prompt you to select the approprate filter.

          In most cases, the generic RIS-filter is the best one to select, especially with files that have a .ris extension. Notable exceptions are listed below.  Also, some of our databases do not work directly with EndNote. Citations from those databases will need to be entered into EndNote manually. See the list below.

          You can always download the most recent version of an import filter from the EndNote pages.

          If you are having trouble importing references, choosing a format or searching a database, talk to your Subject Librarian. If the suggested filter does not work, please see a librarian. Sometimes just the differences in individual computer setups can affect which filter works.


            Importing PDFs

            PDF Import allows you to convert existing collections of PDF files into EndNote references. The DOI from the PDF file(s) is matched to information in CrossRef and then used to make a new reference. NOTE: Not all PDFs have attached DOIs. This varies by publisher and date of publication, not by provider. For example, some PDFs from JSTOR import easily, while others do not.

            To import a PDF file/folder:

            1. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
            2. From the File menu, choose Import File.
            3. Select the PDF file/folder you wish to import and click Open.
            4. Select the PDF import option from the Import Option list.
            5. Click Import.

            If the import is completed correctly, the new record(s) will include bibliographic information fro the PDF file such as title, author, volume, issue, page, year, and DOI. The PDF itself will be attached to the record.If the DOI information is incomplete or incorrect, a record will be created for each PDF with the name of the file. You can then copy & paste the information from the PDF into the EndNote record. (Watch me do this)


              Online Searching via EndNote

              From the EndNote menu, choose Tools, then Online Search or you can use the Online Search option on the left hand side of your library window.   You'll see a list of databases and catalogs for which the online search is available. Each resource on this list has a connection file which contains all the information EndNote needs to search and import references from that resource.

              At the bottom of your screen you'll see Online Search -- and the name of your database or catalog.  Use the pulldown menu next to the search box to choose an author, keyword, or title search.  Type in your search terms and click the Search button.

              Next a dialogue box will appear with the number of results found.  Click Okay and the references will be imported into your library.

              Watch me do this (with sound).


                Eliminating Duplicates

                As you import references from databases and PDFs, it is likely that you will end up with duplicate references.  You can use the "Ignore Duplicates" option when importing references. Often, you will want to see the duplicates side by side so you can select which reference you would like to keep. When that happens, you can eliminate duplicates with the Find Duplicatefeature.

                From the EndNote menu, choose References, then Find Duplicates.

                If duplicate entries are found, EndNote will display two (the first two, if there are more), and ask you to indicate which one you would like to keep.  The other reference will be moved to EndNote trash.

                Watch me do this!


                  Using Groups

                  As you populate your library, you could possibly end up with quite a number of references. A good way to organize your references is by using groups. These groups might be collections of references for a particular class, subtopics of your thesis topic, or even from particular source.

                  To create a group, from the EndNote menu choose Groups, then Create Group.  Name the group, and populate it by highlighting references and dragging and dropping them into the group.

                  Watch me do this!

                  Smart Groups are created by searching your references for a particular criteria.  For example, you could create a Kudzu Group, and any reference in your library, now or added in the future, will automatically fall into the Kudzu Group as long as the keyword "kudzu" is found in the reference.

                  To create a Smart Group, from the EndNote menu choose Groups, then Smart Group. You'll be prompted to create a search, which will dynamically search you EndNote library.  Name the Smart Group.

                  Watch me do this!



                    As you import references from other sources the appropriate fields should be populated correctly. There are fields that might require special treatment or, although not populated by a database, you might want to use for your own purposes:

                    Author/Editor fields: enter multiple personal author/editor names on separate lines with no punctuation following them. Corporate authors should be entered similarly with a comma after the entry. If the corporate author name includes a comma use two commas instead of one. 

                    Research Notes: The Research Notes field is not populated by any databases so it is an excellent field to use to take your own notes about the reference. The field holds up to 64,000 characters, so these notes can be as brief or extensive as you like.

                    File Attachments: You can store a file, or a path to a file, here. Particularly useful for PDFs of articles or Word documents. to link a file: 

                    To link a file to a reference in your EndNote library:

                    1. Select a reference in the Library window, or open the reference for editing.
                    2. References menu, choose File Attachments > Attach File.
                    3. On the file dialog, select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference.
                    4. Note the check box along the bottom titled, "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link." This gives you the option to:
                      • Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library.
                      • Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file. For more information about this option, see the EndNote help guide that came with your program.
                    5. Click Open.

                    EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. You can insert additional files into the same File Attachments field.

                    You can also attach a file by dragging and dropping. The default file attachment settings will determine how the file is handled.


                      Choosing & Previewing Styles

                      In addition to helping you organize your references, EndNote also helps you format your papers by applying the citation style (e.g., Chicago Style B, MLA, APA, etc) to the references as you actually include them into your paper.

                      EndNote includes over 4,500 bibliographic styles, but only the most popular styles are stored as individual files in the Styles folder in your EndNote folder.

                      To preview what the citation will look like & verify that the information is complete, choose a style from the pull-down menu in the upper left corner of the screen.  To see the available styles in EndNote’s Styles folder, choose Output Styles from the Edit menu, and select Open Style Manager. If the style you are looking for is not available, you can download it from EndNote’s Output Styles page. You can also edit a style to make it better suit your needs.

                      Once you've chosen a style, click to highlight a single reference in your library.  Click on Preview in the bottom part of the screen to see what your citation will look like in the style you've chosen.


                        Editing Styles

                        You may need to tweak an output style in order to change the layout of your citations, or to add an annotation to a bibliographic entry.

                        To edit an existing style, from the EndNote menu choose Edit, then Output Styles, then Open Style Manager.  Highlight the style that you would like to edit, then click on the Edit button.

                        You should now have a style, with the .ens extention, in a new window.  From the EndNote menu, choose File, then Save As and create a new style name.  (Do this so that you can keep the original style!) 


                          Creating a Stand-Alone Bibliography

                          From your EndNote Library, select the references or Group that you would like to include in your bibliography. Make sure you have the appropriate style you wish to use selected. Under the Edit Menu, select "Copy Formatted"

                          Open Word and create a new document. Under the Edit menu, select "Paste" to add your reference list.

                          Your bibliography is complete. Unlike a bibliography created with Cite While You Write, you can freely edit these citations as they are not "tied" to EndNote.

                          Watch Me Do This



                            It is important to keep your EndNote program as up to date as possible. Updates for the program updates, styles and filters can all be obtained from the EndNote Support Pages:


                              EndNote & Zotero

                              If you are currently a Zotero user, you may find that you are unable to download references into EndNote using FireFox. This is because the Zotero plug-in is the default for handeling citations. You can deal with this isue in either of two ways:

                              1. If you plan to use EndNote exclusively to manage your citations, you can disable the Zotero plug-in:
                                • InFirefox, open Preferences.
                                • Under the General tab, go to "Manage Add-ons" (at the bottom of the window)
                                • Under Zotero, click on "Disable"

                                Watch me do this

                              2. The Zotero plug-in can also be configured to allow the direct export to EndNote.
                                • Open Zotero.
                                • From the "Actions" menu choose Preferences-->General-->Miscellaneous
                                • In the Miscellaneous section uncheck the box that says “Use Zotero for downloaded RIS/Refer files."

                                Watch me do this


                                EndNote & Word

                                By default, the Cite While You Write toolbar is added to Word when you installed Endnote. To modify the Endnote settings in Word, go the Tools menu, select the Endnote submenu, and select Cite While You Write Preferences.

                                Adding a Citation

                                1. Open the Endnote library containing the references you wish to cite.
                                2. In Word, place your cursor where you would like the citation to go. If you are using footnotes for your citations, remember to insert the footnote and place the cursor within the footnote.
                                3. Go to the Tools menu, EndNote submenu, and select Find Citation(s). In the Find box, search for the appropriate reference. Highlight the correct reference and press Insert. Repeat until all citations are added.
                                4. If Instant Formatting is enabled, your citations are automatically formatted and the bibliography is updated at the end of the document. If not, go to the Tools menu, expand the Endnote submenu, and select Format Bibliography. Select the appropriate Output Style and click OK.

                                Editing a Citation

                                There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. You may want to add a comment, a page reference, or just need that particular citation to look different.

                                1. Insert and format the citation as described above.
                                2. Click on the formatted citation.
                                3. From Word's Tools menu, go to the Endnote submenu and select Edit Citation(s).

                                Generating a Bibliography

                                1. If Instant Formatting is enabled, the bibliography is automatically created at the end of the document.
                                2. To change the output style, go to the Tools menu, expand the EndNote submenu, and select Format Bibliography.
                                3. Select the appropriate output style. Click Browse if the style you want is not listed.
                                4. Click OK.
                                5. Endnote will scan your document and update the citations and bibliography.

                                If you are currently having problems with EndNote working with Word, please contact the CUS help desk.


                                  Add Annotations to a Bibliography

                                  Would you like to include annotations to a bibliography or list of references?

                                  You can do this by creating a new version of the EndNote output style that includes this additional information from your EndNote library. This is an example of the basic steps, using the Chicago 15th B (author-date) output style:

                                  1. From the EndNote program menu, choose Edit, "edit Output Styles", edit Chicago 15th B.
                                  2. You're now about to edit your only Chicago 15th B style!  Make a copy so that you'll still have your regular Chicago 15th B style intact.  From the EndNote menu, choose File, Save As, and create a name for your new version of the style, such as Chicago 15th B notes.
                                  3. In the lefthand box, you'll see a number of options that you can change.  Choose Bibliography, then Layout.
                                  4. Click on the box under End each reference with:
                                  5. On the pulldown menu, choose Insert Field, then End of Paragraph, Tab. (You can change these options to create the layout you have in mind.)
                                  6. Now choose the information you'd like to include in your entries.  For annotations, choose Insert Field, Notes. 
                                  7. To include a space between entries, choose Insert Field, End of Paragraph.
                                  8. Save the changes to your new style.  To check the appearance of the entries, change the output styles pulldown menu to the style you've just created, and click the preview tab to view entries.

                                    Create footnotes

                                    In Word, select Insert -- Footnote.  Next, Tools -- Endnote -- Insert selected citation.  To add page numbers to your footnote, click on the footnote in Word to highlight it in grey.  Then, select Tools -- Endnote -- Edit and Manage Citation(s).  Select the citation you would like to edit, add page numbers, and then save.


                                      Making a .bib file from your EndNote Library

                                      If you already have an EndNote library, you can continue using Endnote or switch to a program that makes bib files more easily (such as JabRef, BibDesk or Bookends). If you would like to switch, follow these instructions and then open up the resulting .bib file in the new program. Otherwise, follow these instructions and then utilize the .bib file in your LaTeX file as described here.

                                      1. Open the library in EndNote.
                                      2. Select the references you want to export, then choose Show Selected References from the References menu. (If you want to export the entire contents of the library, choose Show All References from the References menu.)
                                      3. Make sure to add a unique name to the Label field for each reference. BibTeX will not work unless each reference has a unique name in the Label field. Make it an easy to remember and consistent format, like 'Author,Year' so you can easily cite references while you write in LaTeX. Do not use spaces in the label name!
                                      4. If you want to change the order of the references, choose Sort References from the References menu.
                                      5. Make sure the entries don't have have any special characters in it, like &, % or $. You should also make sure that you don't put any characters with accents in the label, such as é or ï. Latex will not process these characters well and will stop the file from compiling. You can go back to the .bib file later to change the symbols to proper LaTeX markup. (Check out the special symbols section here for how to do that.)
                                      6. Make sure that BibTeX is an export option by going to Edit--> Output Styles. If BibTeX Export is not an option, go to Open Style Manager... and scroll down to the BibTeX entry and click the checkbox as in the below image:
                                      7. Make sure that the option BibTeX Export is checked in the Output Styles menu as well:
                                      8. From the File menu, choose Export.
                                      9. Select the file type for the exported file. Choose Text Onlyto use in BibTeX:

                                      10. Name the export file the same name as your LaTeX file with the '.bib' extension at the end and save it to the same folder as your LaTeX file. Choose Save.
                                      11. Endnote has a tendency to add gibberish at the very beginning of the exported file, so you're going to have to open the new .bib file in your LaTeX editor and delete the symbols up (but not including!) to the @ symbol. Here's the first line of an exported .bib file:
                                        Delete the "Ôªø" (leaving @misc{Boltzmann) and save the file in .bib format.
                                      12. To use the bibliography in your LaTeX file, go to the setup instructions.

                                        Suggested Filters

                                        The information included in the following table may be incomplete. Please refer any questions or report any errors to the appropriate subject librarian.




                                        ABELL Literature Online
                                        ACM Digital Library ACM Digital Library
                                        Annual Reviews EndNote import  
                                        Anthropological Literature Plus Anthropology Plus  
                                        ArchiveFinder Refman-ris
                                        Art Abstracts WilsonWeb  
                                        Art Index Retrospective WilsonWeb  
                                        Arts & Humanities Citation Index Web of Science (ISI)  
                                        Artstor ARTstor
                                        ArticleFirst ArticleFirst (OCLC)
                                        Avery Index to Architrectural Periodicals WilsonWeb  
                                        Bibliography of Asian Studies Bib of Asian Studies  
                                        Bibliography of British and Irish History BREPOLiS  
                                        BioMed Central BioMed Central  
                                        BIOSIS Previews Web of Science (ISI)  
                                        CiteSeer   Data must be exported as a .bib file, then imported into EndNote via BibTeX.
                                        ClasePeriodica Clase y Periodica (OCLC)  
                                        Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science & Technical (CPCI-S) OR Social Sciences Web of Science (ISI)  
                                        Contemporary Women's Issues CWI (OCLC)  
                                        Dadabase INNOPAC  
                                        Dissertation Abstracts Dissertation Abs (OCLC)  
                                        ECO ECO (OCLC)  
                                        Essay and General Literature Index WilsonWeb  
                                        Film Literature Index FilmLiteratureIndex (FLI)  
                                        Gale Virtual REference Library Lit Resources (Gale)  
                                        Geobase GEOBASE (OCLC)  
                                        Google Scholar EndNote Import  
                                        HAPI EndNote Generated XML  
                                        Humanities Abstracts WilsonWeb  
                                        Humanities and Social Sciences Index Retrospective WilsonWeb  
                                        International Bibliography of Art ArtBiblio Modern (CSA)  
                                        International Medieval Bibliography Online BREPOLiS  
                                        JSTOR JSTOR  
                                        Linguistics Abstracts Online EndNote Import  
                                        LION Literature Online
                                        MathSci Net EndNote Import
                                        Medline (FirstSearch) Medline (OCLC)
                                        Medline (Web of Science) Web of Science (ISI)
                                        Mental Measurements Yearbook Mental Measurements (OVIDSP)
                                        Newspaper Abstracts Newspaper Abs (OCLC)
                                        Nineteenth Century Masterfile EndNote Import
                                        PapersFirst PapersFirst (OCLC)
                                        Past Masters EndNote Import
                                        Periodical Abstracts Periodical Abs (OCLC)
                                        Periodicals Index/Archive Online Literature Online
                                        Play Index WilsonWeb
                                        ProceedingsFirst ProceedingsFirst (OCLC)
                                        PsycInfo & PsycBooks PsycINFO (OVIDSP)
                                        PubMed PubMed (NLM)
                                        Readers' Guide To Periodicals/Retrospective WilsonWeb
                                        RPIM RPIM (OCLC)
                                        SAGE Journals Online RIS-filter Use the Zotero option to export the references. Import into EndNote using the RIS-filter.
                                        Science Citation Index Web of Science (ISI)
                                        ScienceDirect ScienceDirect  
                                        Short Story Index WilsonWeb
                                        Social Science Index WilsonWeb
                                        Social Sciences Citation Index Web of Science (ISI)
                                        SourceOECD EndNote Import
                                        Web of Science Web of Science (ISI)
                                        World Shakespeare Bibliography Online World Shakespeare Bib
                                        WorldCat (OCLC) WorldCat (OCLC) If using WorldCat Local, use the RIS-filter.
                                        Zoological Abstracts Web of Science (ISI)

                                          Databases That Will Not Import Into EndNote

                                          Some of our databases do not work directly with EndNote. Citations from the following resources will need to be entered into EndNote manually:

                                          AATA Online   ICPSR
                                          Accessible Archives   Index of Christian Art
                                          ACLS Humanities E-Book   Index to American Botanical Literature Online
                                          Acta Sanctorum   International Financial Statistics
                                          American FactFinder   Iter Gateway
                                          American National Biography   Jazz Music Library
                                          American Song   LexisNexis Academic
                                          AnthroSource   LexisNexis Congressional
                                          ARTFL   LexisNexis State Capital
                                          Bibliography of English Women Writers, 1500-1640   LexisNexis Statistical Data Sets
                                          Bibliography of the History of Art   LexisNexis Statistical Insight
                                          Biography & Genealogy Master Index   Library of Latin Texts
                                          Blackwell Reference Online Classics Collection   Library of Southern Literature
                                          Britannica Online   Music Online
                                          Catalog of U.S. Government Publications   National Criminal Justice Reference Service
                                          China Data Online   National Journal Policy Central
                                          CIAO: Columbia International Affairs Online   Naxos Music Library
                                          Current Index to Statistics   Nineteenth Century British Library Newspapers
                                          Classical Music Library   NUCMC
                                          Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism   Oxford English Dictionary
                                          CogNet   Oxford Language Dictionaries Online
                                          Contemporary World Music   Oxford Reference Online
                                          Contemporary Authors   Oxford Reference Online for Classics
                                          CQ Weekly   Patrologia Latina
                                          Database of Latin Dictionaries   Perseus Digital Library
                                          Dictionarium Latinogallicum   Polling the Nations
                                          Diotima   Roper Center for Public Opinion Research
                                          DRAM   Slavery and Antislavery
                                          Early English Books Online (EEBO)   Smithsonian Global Sound
                                          eHraf Archaeology   Social Explorer
                                          eHRAF World Cultures   Social and Cultural History
                                          Eighteenth Century Collections Online   Stat-USA
                                          Eighteenth Century Journals   TableBase
                                          English Short Title Catalog   Thesaurus Linguae Graecae
                                          FDsys   TLS Archive
                                          FedStats   Ulrich's
                                          Feminae   Walt Whitman Archive
                                          Gallica   Women and Social Movements in the United States
                                          Getty Thesauri   Women Writers Online
                                          Gnomon Online   World Databank
                                          Handbook of Latin American Studies   World Development Indicators Online
                                          Historical Abstracts of the United States   World News Connection
                                          Hoover's   WorldWideScience.org

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