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This is the "EndNote" page of the "Citation Management" guide.
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Citation Management  

Last Updated: Sep 30, 2014 URL: http://libguides.reed.edu/citation Print Guide RSS Updates

EndNote Print Page


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    Reed Librarians

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    Get EndNote Software

    Reed College has a site license for EndNote citation management software. You'll find a copy of EndNote on library and ETC computers. You're also permitted to download a copy of EndNote on a Reed or personal computer.

    Download EndNote

    For more information, see CUS's EndNote Installation.

    If you have trouble downloading of installing EndNote, please contact the CUS Help Desk.


      Creating a Library

      In EndNote, you'll first need to create a "library," or a folder to hold your citations.

      When you first open endnote, you can do this by clicking on "Create a New Library" from the "Getting Started with EndNote" window. After your initial use, you can create libraries from EndNote File menu.

      Name your library something you will remember & be sure to put it in a location that you back up frequently. Notice the "Save as Package" option. This option merges the two files that EndNote normally creates (a .enl file and a .data folder) into one file. This makes backing up your library much easier (you only have to keep track of one file!) but there have been reports of the "Packaged Files" crashing EndNote and/or Word, so test the files before you add a number of references to your library.

      Watch me do this (with sound)


        Entering References

         There are four main ways of adding references to your library:

        1. Enter the reference information manually.
        2. Search databases remotely.
        3. Import references found in databases.
        4. Import metadata from PDFs.

        There are also some tips for the suggested format for entering information and special fields of which you should be aware.


          Creating References

          To create a reference, use the "New Reference" button or use the References drop down menu. From the New Referencewindow, use the drop down menu to select the type of reference you wish to create -- the default is Journal Article, but you can easily change it to Book or any of a number of other formats.  Appropriate use of some of the reference types might not be apparent, so a clarification list follows:

          • Book: books written by one or more author
          • Edited Book: books edited by one or more editors
          • Book Section: a chapter, introduction, or other section of a published book
          • Conference Paper: unpublished papers
          • Conference Proceedings: articles or the entire volume of publhed comprehensive pconference proceedings
          • Electronic Article, Electronic Book, Web Page: use for citing material from a web page or FTP site that does not also appear in print. If a book or article is available both in print and electronic format, it should be cited as a journal article or book according to most style manuals.
          • Personal Communications: correspondence in any form: print, electronic or verbal.

          Fill in as many of lines on the form as you need, but don't worry about leaving lines blank if you don't need them.

          EndNote saves the reference automatically when you close the reference window.


            Online Searching via EndNote

            From the EndNote menu, choose Tools, then Online Search or you can use the Online Search option on the left hand side of your library window.   You'll see a list of databases and catalogs for which the online search is available.  For example, Reed is the Reed Library catalog. Each resource on this list has a connection file which contains all the information EndNote needs to search and import references from that resource.

            At the bottom of your screen you'll see Online Search -- and the name of your database or catalog.  Use the pulldown menu next to the search box to choose an author, keyword, or title search.  Type in your search terms and click the Search button.

            Next a dialogue box will appear with the number of results found.  Click Okay and the references will be imported into your library.

            Watch me do this (with sound).


              Importing Citations

              Conducting an online search via EndNote may not be the best way for you to populate your EndNote library. Many of our sources, such as JSTOR, don't have connection files, while others, such as Web of Science, have sophisticated search capabilities that can't be ustilized via the EndNote search. In these situations, you can add citations to EndNote using the import option.

              • Search as you ordinarily would in the database of your choice (We will be using Academic Search Premier. For an example of importing references from JSTOR, see the CUS Help Pages).
              • Mark or save citations you're interested in. Most databases have some way of doing this, so you'll need to look for the option. Watch me do this (with sound).

              At this point, which browser you are using deteermines what you do next:

                • FireFox/Direct Export: (Watch me do this with sound)
                  • Export the citation.  Use the Direct Export to EndNote option.  Notice and remember where the citations were saved on your computer and what the file is called. You will be asked which program should be used to open the file (EndNote), and then which library the files should be imported yo, if no library is open. Then your references should all be imported into EndNote.
                  • If there is no Direct Export option or the option does not work correctly, use the instructions for SafariUsers below.

                • Safari users: (Watch me do this with sound)
                  • Export the citation.  Use the RIS file format or Export to EndNote if there is either option.  Notice and remember where the citations were saved on your computer and what the file is called.
                  • From the EndNote menu, choose File, then Import.  Highlight the citation file you imported earlier.  Then for the Import Options pull-down menu, choose the filter used for your database.  Click on the Import button.

              When in doubt about which filter to choose, see the library's list of databases and filters for help.


                Importing PDFs

                PDF Import allows you to convert existing collections of PDF files into EndNote references. The DOI from the PDF file(s) is matched to information in CrossRefand then used to make a new reference. NIOTE: Not all PDFs have attached DOIs. This varies by publisher and date of publication, not necissarily by provider. For example, some PDFs from JSTOR import easily, while others do not.

                To import a PDF file/folder:

                1. Open the library into which you want to import the references.
                2. From the File menu, choose Import File.
                3. Select the PDF file/folder you wish to import and click Open.
                4. Select the PDF import option from the Import Option list.
                5. Click Import.

                If the import is completed correctly, the new record(s) will include bibliographic information fro the PDF file such as title, author, volume, issue, page, year, and DOI. The PDF itself will be attached to the record.If the DOI information is incomplete or incorrect, a record will be created for each PDF with the name of the file. You can then copy & paste the information from the PDF into the EndNote record. (Watch me do this)


                  Help With Choosing a Filter

                  Having trouble deciding which filter to use when importing citations into EndNote? If you aren't using FireFox, EndNote will prompt you to select the approprate filter.

                  In most cases, the generic RIS-filter is the best one to select, especially with files that have a .ris extension. Notable exceptions are listed below.  Also, some of our databases do not work directly with EndNote. Citations from those databases will need to be entered into EndNote manually. See the list below.

                  You can always download the most recent version of an import filter from the EndNote pages.

                  If you are having trouble importing references, choosing a format or searching a database, talk to your Subject Librarian. If the suggested filter does not work, please see a librarian. Sometimes just the differences in individual computer setups can affect which filter works.


                    Eliminating Duplicates

                    As you import references from databases and PDFs, it is likely that you will end up with duplicate references.  You can use the "Ignore Duplicates" option when importing references. Often, you will want to see the duplicates side by side so you can select which reference you would like to keep. When that happens, you can eliminate duplicates with the Find Duplicatefeature.

                    From the EndNote menu, choose References, then Find Duplicates.

                    If duplicate entries are found, EndNote will display two (the first two, if there are more), and ask you to indicate which one you would like to keep.  The other reference will be moved to EndNote trash.

                    Watch me do this!


                      Using Groups

                      As you populate your library, you could possibly end up with quite a number of references. A good way to organize your references is by using groups. These groups might be collections of references for a particular class, subtopics of your thesis topic, or even from particular source.

                      To create a group, from the EndNote menu choose Groups, then Create Group.  Name the group, and populate it by highlighting references and dragging and dropping them into the group.

                      Watch me do this!

                      Smart Groups are created by searching your references for a particular criteria.  For example, you could create a Kudzu Group, and any reference in your library, now or added in the future, will automatically fall into the Kudzu Group as long as the keyword "kudzu" is found in the reference.

                      To create a Smart Group, from the EndNote menu choose Groups, then Smart Group. You'll be prompted to create a search, which will dynamically search you EndNote library.  Name the Smart Group.

                      Watch me do this!



                        As you import references from other sources the appropriate fields should be populated correctly. There are fields that might require special treatment or, although not populated by a database, you might want to use for your own purposes:

                        Author/Editor fields: enter multiple personal author/editor names on separate lines with no punctuation following them. Corporate authors should be entered similarly with a comma after the entry. If the corporate author name includes a comma use two commas instead of one. 

                        Research Notes: The Research Notes field is not populated by any databases so it is an excellent field to use to take your own notes about the reference. The field holds up to 64,000 characters, so these notes can be as brief or extensive as you like.

                        File Attachments: You can store a file, or a path to a file, here. Particularly useful for PDFs of articles or Word documents. to link a file: 

                        To link a file to a reference in your EndNote library:

                        1. Select a reference in the Library window, or open the reference for editing.
                        2. References menu, choose File Attachments > Attach File.
                        3. On the file dialog, select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference.
                        4. Note the check box along the bottom titled, "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link." This gives you the option to:
                          • Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library.
                          • Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file. For more information about this option, see the EndNote help guide that came with your program.
                        5. Click Open.

                        EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. You can insert additional files into the same File Attachments field.

                        You can also attach a file by dragging and dropping. The default file attachment settings will determine how the file is handled.


                          Choosing & Previewing Styles

                          In addition to helping you organize your references, EndNote also helps you format your papers by applying the citation style (e.g., Chicago Style B, MLA, APA, etc) to the references as you actually include them into your paper.

                          EndNote includes over 4,500 bibliographic styles, but only the most popular styles are stored as individual files in the Styles folder in your EndNote folder.

                          To preview what the citation will look like & verify that the information is complete, choose a style from the pull-down menu in the upper left corner of the screen.  To see the available styles in EndNote’s Styles folder, choose Output Styles from the Edit menu, and select Open Style Manager. If the style you are looking for is not available, you can download it from EndNote’s Output Styles page. You can also edit a style to make it better suit your needs.

                          Once you've chosen a style, click to highlight a single reference in your library.  Click on Preview in the bottom part of the screen to see what your citation will look like in the style you've chosen.


                            Editing Styles

                            You may need to tweak an output style in order to change the layout of your citations, or to add an annotation to a bibliographic entry.

                            To edit an existing style, from the EndNote menu choose Edit, then Output Styles, then Open Style Manager.  Highlight the style that you would like to edit, then click on the Edit button.

                            You should now have a style, with the .ens extention, in a new window.  From the EndNote menu, choose File, then Save As and create a new style name.  (Do this so that you can keep the original style!) 


                              Creating a Stand-Alone Bibliography

                              From your EndNote Library, select the references or Group that you would like to include in your bibliography. Make sure you have the appropriate style you wish to use selected. Under the Edit Menu, select "Copy Formatted"

                              Open Word and create a new document. Under the Edit menu, select "Paste" to add your reference list.

                              Your bibliography is complete. Unlike a bibliography created with Cite While You Write, you can freely edit these citations as they are not "tied" to EndNote.

                              Watch Me Do This



                                It is important to keep your EndNote program as up to date as possible. Updates for the program updates, styles and filters can all be obtained from the EndNote Support Pages:


                                  EndNote & Zotero

                                  If you are currently a Zotero user, you may find that you are unable to download references into EndNote using FireFox. This is because the Zotero plug-in is the default for handeling citations. You can deal with this isue in either of two ways:

                                  1. If you plan to use EndNote exclusively to manage your citations, you can disable the Zotero plug-in:
                                    • InFirefox, open Preferences.
                                    • Under the General tab, go to "Manage Add-ons" (at the bottom of the window)
                                    • Under Zotero, click on "Disable"

                                    Watch me do this

                                  2. The Zotero plug-in can also be configured to allow the direct export to EndNote.
                                    • Open Zotero.
                                    • From the "Actions" menu choose Preferences-->General-->Miscellaneous
                                    • In the Miscellaneous section uncheck the box that says “Use Zotero for downloaded RIS/Refer files."

                                    Watch me do this


                                    EndNote & Word

                                    By default, the Cite While You Write toolbar is added to Word when you installed Endnote. To modify the Endnote settings in Word, go the Tools menu, select the Endnote submenu, and select Cite While You Write Preferences.

                                    Adding a Citation

                                    1. Open the Endnote library containing the references you wish to cite.
                                    2. In Word, place your cursor where you would like the citation to go. If you are using footnotes for your citations, remember to insert the footnote and place the cursor within the footnote.
                                    3. Go to the Tools menu, EndNote submenu, and select Find Citation(s). In the Find box, search for the appropriate reference. Highlight the correct reference and press Insert. Repeat until all citations are added.
                                    4. If Instant Formatting is enabled, your citations are automatically formatted and the bibliography is updated at the end of the document. If not, go to the Tools menu, expand the Endnote submenu, and select Format Bibliography. Select the appropriate Output Style and click OK.

                                    Editing a Citation

                                    There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. You may want to add a comment, a page reference, or just need that particular citation to look different.

                                    1. Insert and format the citation as described above.
                                    2. Click on the formatted citation.
                                    3. From Word's Tools menu, go to the Endnote submenu and select Edit Citation(s).

                                    Generating a Bibliography

                                    1. If Instant Formatting is enabled, the bibliography is automatically created at the end of the document.
                                    2. To change the output style, go to the Tools menu, expand the EndNote submenu, and select Format Bibliography.
                                    3. Select the appropriate output style. Click Browse if the style you want is not listed.
                                    4. Click OK.
                                    5. Endnote will scan your document and update the citations and bibliography.

                                    If you are currently having problems with EndNote working with Word, please contact the CUS help desk.


                                      Add Annotations to a Bibliography

                                      Would you like to include annotations to a bibliography or list of references?

                                      You can do this by creating a new version of the EndNote output style that includes this additional information from your EndNote library. This is an example of the basic steps, using the Chicago 15th B (author-date) output style:

                                      1. From the EndNote program menu, choose Edit, "edit Output Styles", edit Chicago 15th B.
                                      2. You're now about to edit your only Chicago 15th B style!  Make a copy so that you'll still have your regular Chicago 15th B style intact.  From the EndNote menu, choose File, Save As, and create a name for your new version of the style, such as Chicago 15th B notes.
                                      3. In the lefthand box, you'll see a number of options that you can change.  Choose Bibliography, then Layout.
                                      4. Click on the box under End each reference with:
                                      5. On the pulldown menu, choose Insert Field, then End of Paragraph, Tab. (You can change these options to create the layout you have in mind.)
                                      6. Now choose the information you'd like to include in your entries.  For annotations, choose Insert Field, Notes. 
                                      7. To include a space between entries, choose Insert Field, End of Paragraph.
                                      8. Save the changes to your new style.  To check the appearance of the entries, change the output styles pulldown menu to the style you've just created, and click the preview tab to view entries.

                                        Create footnotes

                                        In Word, select Insert -- Footnote.  Next, Tools -- Endnote -- Insert selected citation.  To add page numbers to your footnote, click on the footnote in Word to highlight it in grey.  Then, select Tools -- Endnote -- Edit and Manage Citation(s).  Select the citation you would like to edit, add page numbers, and then save.


                                          Making a .bib file from your EndNote Library

                                          If you already have an EndNote library, you can continue using Endnote or switch to a program that makes bib files more easily (such as JabRef, BibDesk or Bookends). If you would like to switch, follow these instructions and then open up the resulting .bib file in the new program. Otherwise, follow these instructions and then utilize the .bib file in your LaTeX file as described here.

                                          1. Open the library in EndNote.
                                          2. Select the references you want to export, then choose Show Selected References from the References menu. (If you want to export the entire contents of the library, choose Show All References from the References menu.)
                                          3. Make sure to add a unique name to the Label field for each reference. BibTeX will not work unless each reference has a unique name in the Label field. Make it an easy to remember and consistent format, like 'Author,Year' so you can easily cite references while you write in LaTeX. Do not use spaces in the label name!
                                          4. If you want to change the order of the references, choose Sort References from the References menu.
                                          5. Make sure the entries don't have have any special characters in it, like &, % or $. You should also make sure that you don't put any characters with accents in the label, such as é or ï. Latex will not process these characters well and will stop the file from compiling. You can go back to the .bib file later to change the symbols to proper LaTeX markup. (Check out the special symbols section here for how to do that.)
                                          6. Make sure that BibTeX is an export option by going to Edit--> Output Styles. If BibTeX Export is not an option, go to Open Style Manager... and scroll down to the BibTeX entry and click the checkbox as in the below image:
                                          7. Make sure that the option BibTeX Export is checked in the Output Styles menu as well:
                                          8. From the File menu, choose Export.
                                          9. Select the file type for the exported file. Choose Text Onlyto use in BibTeX:

                                          10. Name the export file the same name as your LaTeX file with the '.bib' extension at the end and save it to the same folder as your LaTeX file. Choose Save.
                                          11. Endnote has a tendency to add gibberish at the very beginning of the exported file, so you're going to have to open the new .bib file in your LaTeX editor and delete the symbols up (but not including!) to the @ symbol. Here's the first line of an exported .bib file:
                                            Delete the "Ôªø" (leaving @misc{Boltzmann) and save the file in .bib format.
                                          12. To use the bibliography in your LaTeX file, go to the setup instructions.

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