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A research guide for those majoring in Economics or taking an Econ course.

How to Cite Statistics

Citations for statistics should enable your readers to locate the table or data that you have used in your assignment or paper.

At a minimum, a citation should include:

  • Creator of the data (often an organization or government agency)
  • Date of publication
  • Where it was published
  • URL of the web site where you found the data (if from the Internet)
  • Date that you accessed the data, only if significant (i.e., data is updated without adjustment to publication date)

Example from a printed book:

U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Residential energy consumption, expenditures, and average price, 1980 to 1997. Statistical Abstract of the United States, 120th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, 587. Table no. 949.

Example from a web site:

U.S. Energy Information Agency, 2001. Renewable energy consumption by energy source, 1995-1999. Table H1,

Example from a database with session-dependent URLs; originally published in a journal:

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2001. Personal consumption expenditures by major type of product. Survey of Current Business (May): D-7,**

** Session-dependent URL from search, not used in citation: