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Background Information

If you are getting started with research or are not clear about your topic, there are many handbooks, dictionaries, and encyclopedias that provide definitions and introductory information. You can also browse them to brainstorm for more ideas or for definitive information about topics in Classics. 

Key Reference Resources

Classical History & Literature

Brill’s New Pauly: Enyclopaedia of the Ancient World A multi-volume English translation of the seminal German reference work Der Neue Pauly, containing illustrated scholarly articles reflecting current research. An extremely comprehensive resource with a contemporary, interdisciplinary approach. Consists of three parts: Antiquity, Classical Tradition, and a Supplement, Chronologies of the Ancient World: Names, Dates, and Dynasties.

Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3rd Edition) Includes articles on authors, major works, historical notables, mythological figures, and topics of literary significance from the appearance of the Greeks, around 2200 B.C, to the close of the Athenian philosophy schools in A.D. 529. 

Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd Edition) With more than 6,200 entries, The Oxford Classical Dictionary has been regarded as the unrivalled one-volume reference work on all aspects of the Graeco-Roman world

Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome A multi-volume contemporary work examining the classical Mediterranean world from an interdisciplinary perspective.

Guide to the Ancient World: A Dictionary of Classical Place Names

Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World

Who's Who in the Roman World


Classical Philosophy & Religion

Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy

Encyclopedia of Religion


Classical Art & Mythology