Skip to Main Content


White all caps text "MLA CITATION" over an image of a crumpled sheet of paper resting on a laptop

When to Cite

Citations allow you to track and document where the information you've used in your research came from and to give other scholars/artists credit for their original work. These are some common situations that require citations:

  • A direct quote from a text.
  • A direct quote from someone else’s writing about that text.
  • A paraphrase of the ideas of another writer.
  • An image, audio, or video clip.

Citation Manuals

About Annotated Bibliographies

From the Purdue OWL:

bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "References" or "Works Cited" depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.

Find more information, including examples and citation formatting at the Purdue OWL here.

Citing Dance Videos using MLA

Dance DVD or VHS

Citations for film or video recordings usually begin with the title of the film:

   Title.  Director, choreographer, relevant performers (if any).  Distributor, date. Format.

However, if you’re citing the contribution of a particular individual, like a choreographer, you can begin with that person’s name.  For example:

   Jones, Bill T.  Still Here.  Dir. Alice Markowitz.  Films for the Humanities and Sciences,1997.  VHS.

Dance videos found online, such as through UbuWeb or On the Boards

If the online work you are citing was not born digital (i.e., is a digitized version of a film or live performance), begin your citation by following MLA’s citation recommendations for the original format.  Conclude your citation with:

1.  Title of the website (italicized)

2.  Medium of publication (Web)

3.  Date of access

It’s still ok to begin your citation with the name of the choreographer, if that is the individual whose contribution you are citing.  For example:

   Jones, Bill T. and Arnie Zane.  “Rotary Action.”  Alive From Off Center.  PBS.  15 July 1985.  UbuWeb.  Web.  13 November 2013.

Manage Citations