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When to Cite

Citations allow you to track and document where the information you've used in your research came from and to give other scholars/artists credit for their original work. These are some common situations that require citations:

  • A direct quote from a text.
  • A direct quote from someone else’s writing about that text.
  • A paraphrase of the ideas of another writer.
  • An image, audio, or video clip.

Format Citations

Many music classes at Reed require papers be formatted according to the Chicago Manual of Style. We have copies at PARC Reference, the main library reference desk, and the main library's reference room, Z253. U69 2017, as well as online.

You may also find these sources helpful:

  • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, by Kate L. Turabian: LB2369. T8 2013 (copies at PARC Reference and main library Reference)
  • Writing About Music, by Demar Irvine: PARC Books ML3797. I79 1999
  • Music in Words: a Guide to Researching and Writing About Music, by Trevor Herbert: Main library Stacks ML3797 .H537 2009 and online

What to include

Citations help your readers trace back to the sources you've used.  Your citations should to include all of the information listed below:

Books: Author, title, publisher, location of publisher, year of publication

Articles: Author, periodical title, periodical volume and issue number, publisher, year of publication, page numbers

About Annotated Bibliographies

From the Purdue OWL:

bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "References" or "Works Cited" depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.

Find more information, including examples and citation formatting at the Purdue OWL here.

Manage Citations