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When to Cite

Citations allow you to track and document where the information you've used in your research came from and to give other scholars/artists credit for their original work. These are some common situations that require citations:

  • A direct quote from a text.
  • A direct quote from someone else’s writing about that text.
  • A paraphrase of the ideas of another writer.
  • An image, audio, or video clip.

What to include

Citations help your readers trace back to the sources you've used.  Your citations should to include all of the information listed below:

Books: Author, title, publisher, location of publisher, year of publication

Articles: Author, periodical title, periodical volume and issue number, publisher, year of publication, page numbers

Manage citations

About Annotated Bibliographies

From the Purdue OWL:

bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "References" or "Works Cited" depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.

Find more information, including examples and citation formatting at the Purdue OWL here.